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F statistic is 1.18 The p-value is 0.317

Now try one for yourself.

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The ANOVA F-test does not provide any insight into why H 0 was rejected; it does not tell us in what wayμ1,μ2,μ3…,μk are not all equal. We would like to know which pairs of ’s are not equal. As an exploratory (or visual) aid to get that insight, we may take a look at the confidence intervals for group population meansμ1,μ2,μ3…,μk that appears in the output. More specifically, we should look at the position of the confidence intervals and overlap/no overlap between them.

* If the confidence interval for, say,μi overlaps with the confidence interval forμj , thenμi andμj share some plausible values, which means that based on the data we have no evidence that these two ’s are different.

* If the confidence interval forμi does not overlap with the confidence interval forμj , thenμi andμj do not share plausible values, which means that the data suggest that these two ’s are different.

Furthermore, if like in the figure above the confidence interval (set of plausible values) forμi lies entirely below the confidence interval (set of plausible values) forμj, then the data suggest thatμi is smaller thanμj.


Consider our first example on the level of academic frustration.

Based on the small p-value, we rejected Hand concluded that not all four frustration level means are equal, or in other words that frustration level is related to the student’s major. To get more insight into that relationship, we can look at the confidence intervals above (marked in red). The top confidence interval is the set of plausible values forμ, the mean frustration level of business students. The confidence interval below it is the set of plausible values forμ, the mean frustration level of English students, etc.

What we see is that the business confidence interval is way below the other three (it doesn’t overlap with any of them). The math confidence interval overlaps with both the English and the psychology confidence intervals; however, there is no overlap between the English and psychology confidence intervals.

This gives us the impression that the mean frustration level of business students is lower than the mean in the other three majors. Within the other three majors, we get the impression that the mean frustration of math students may not differ much from the mean of both English and psychology students, however the mean frustration of English students may be lower than the mean of psychology students.

Note that this is only an exploratory/visual way of getting an impression of why Hwas rejected, not a formal one. There is a formal way of doing it that is called “multiple comparisons,” which is beyond the scope of this course. An extension to this course will include this topic in the future.

LO 5.1: For a data analysis situation involving two variables,determine the appropriate alternative (non-parametric) method when assumptions of our standard methods are not met.

We will look at one non-parametric test in the k > 2 independent sample setting. We will cover more details later ( Details for Non-Parametric Alternatives ).

When using tags pay special attention to your quote marks. If you need more than one level of quotation you will need to either alternate between single and double quote marks, or escape your quotes. For example, instead of this (the problem should be apparent by the syntax highlighting):

do this:

or this:

Tags that output numeric content will work fine with quotes, but also do not need them, e.g. Fluid field count variables :

Certain conditionals exist in a shortened form in order to improve template readability. These conditionals are usually checking to see if a certain thing is true or exists:

This tag pair will display content within the pair if the person viewing the page is currently a logged in member.


This only tests whether or not someone is logged in. If you want to restrict a particular page based on the member group assignment you’ll do that in your Template preferences in the Control Panel.

This tag pair will display content within the pair if the person viewing the page is not currently a logged in member.

You’ll notice in the “logout” link above that a special path is used: {path=’LOGOUT’}. This is a special-case path value that will automatically render the correct path for someone to log out.

There are a handful of variables that are always available to conditionals.

You can test against the email address of the currently logged in user.

You can test against the group description of the currently logged in user.

You can test against the Member Group of the currently logged in user.

You can test against the IP address of the currently logged in user.

You can test against the location of the currently logged in user.

Test for the member ID of the currently logged in user.

Test against the number of unread private messages.

You can test against the screen name of the currently logged in user.

Test against the total number of comments submitted by the currently logged in user.

Test against the total number of entries submitted by the currently logged in user.

Test against the total number of forum posts by the currently logged in user.

Test against the total number of forum topics by the currently logged in user.

You can test against the username of the currently logged in user.

You can test against one of the Charm Foot Womens Causal Lace Up Square Toe Chunky Mid Heel Shoes Pink fSTIrJ4wA0
that are available. The conditional should be replaced with the correct segment name. e.g. if you’re interested in URL Segment 3, then use {if segment_3} .

He’s been well known as an offensive defenseman who can move the puck and skate exceptionally well. Both of these talents are perfect fits for the Hawks who badly need help getting the puck out of their own zone and through the neutral zone.

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These skills started to come through more and more as Jokiharju really came into his own last year in his second season with the Winterhawks. His offensive ability was on full display. He put up a 71 points in just 63 games. Making up those 71 points were 12 goals and a total of 59 assists. Jokiharju ended the year an impressive +47 in the +/- category.

Obviously, the guy has incredible abilities on the offensive side of the puck. The knock on him is that he has a sizable amount of room to improve his game defensively. Even so, 71 points in 63 games is enough to beg the question, can his talent translate to the NHL?

Henri Jokiharju needs to look only to last season to find an example of someone jumping straight from a junior or college level to the NHL. The Chicago Blackhawks’ own Alex Debrincat made the team straight from the OHL’s Erie Otters. In his final season there, Debrincat lit up the league for 127 points in 63 games. He scored 65 goals and added 62 assists. His goal scoring and playmaking ability translated to the NHL smoothly as he led the Blackhawks in goals with 28.

While that’s absolutely reason to be optimistic about Jokiharju breaking into the league, it is significantly easier to make that transition as a forward. Playing defense in the NHL is another story.

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However, Charlie McAvoy did it last year. He spent two seasons in the NCAA with Boston University. McAvoy played well enough in college to be drafted 14th overall by the Boston Bruins in 2016. He had 25 and 26 points in 37 and 38 games while in college.

It wasn’t until McAvoy came into the NHL, though, that he played his best season of hockey yet. In his first NHL season Charlie was a +25 in +/- over 63 games. He tallied 32 points on 7 goals and 25 assists. Furthermore, though, McAvoy was a rock solid defenseman and averaged 22:09 TOI.

Jokiharju doesn’t quite have the same defensive ability which helped McAvoy ease into the NHL so easily. He does, however, have an insane offensive ability which McAvoy lacked.

Next: Former Chicago Blackhawk Anthony Duclair signs with Blue Jackets

Whether or not Jokiharju can make it in the NHL this season remains to be seen. His offensive ability would be huge on a blue line which lacked the ability to contribute last season. He’s the best offensive defenseman prospect since Nick Leddy. Unfortunately, Leddy got rushed into his role in the NHL and couldn’t quite keep his head afloat. As a result, he got traded. The hope is that the same thing won’t happen to Jokiharju. However, with the lack of action in free agency this year, the Blackhawks need him now more than ever.

Of course, it’s possible that the reason few people are interested in a cause would be that it isn’t large-scale or isn’t tractable, in which case its apparent neglectedness would actually signal that addressing it isn’t a very good use of resources. However, among animal causes, this often isn’t the primary reason for a cause being neglected. Many people value animal lives differently for speciesist reasons, or because the animals occupy different roles in human society. To animal advocates who assign value to animal experience based on the animal’s intrinsic characteristics, many animal causes appear to be neglected primarily because others do not recognize their scale, rather than because they are unimportant or intractable. These neglected causes may be especially good opportunities to make a difference.

For instance, in the United States many more resources are devoted to helping companion animals than to helping farmed animals, although there are many more distressed farmed animals than distressed companion animals. The most efficient ways of helping companion animals are likely to be almost fully funded, or fully funded in most areas. 67 However, there seem to be much more efficient ways of helping farmed animals that aren’t fully funded. New Balance Womens Athletics Boyshort AST Tre Teamred lMeRA
Most donors are more willing to donate to help companion animals, so even though they could help more animals by donating to a farm animal organization, they donate to opportunities to help companion animals, funding the most efficient ways to help these animals, and then also less efficient ways. Someone who does not care which animals they help could do more good by donating to help farmed animals, because fewer people have already donated to help them and so better opportunities to help are still available.

Similarly, donating to help companion animals in India or China could be more helpful than donating to help them in the United States, because the best opportunities to help may not already be taken. 69 In this case it is especially clear that neglectedness is not due to a lack of scale or tractability, because many of the techniques to help companion animals are applicable in any location, including setting up spay and neuter clinics and educating people about how to care for their pets. But because many donors want to help their local community and the United States is richer than China or India, these opportunities are better funded in the United States.

The most effective causes to support are likely to be relatively large-scale, tractable, and neglected. However, in reality it’s not likely that a single cause will be the most large-scale, the most tractable, and also the most neglected. We must weigh these attributes against each other when deciding where to prioritize our efforts.

It can help to summarize how all the causes we’re considering compare in each area. Of course, this is a rough tool to help us think about the issues, not a final judgment about them; as we’ve seen, scale, tractability, and neglectedness aren’t generally precisely measurable. Below, we compare our overall impressions regarding the causes of specific groups of animals. We rate each cause on a scale from 1 to 10 in each area, with 1 being the least large-scale, tractable, or neglected, and 10 the most. 70


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